Figure 1. Illustration of city as the integrator of different types of flows. (Anttiroiko, 2015).
Some of the typologies of flows are based on contextual analysis, such as Appadurai’s (2003) five ‘flowscapes’ – people, technologies, finance, media and ideologies – as the landscape of late modernity. Yet, to achieve a scheme that is relevant for local economic development policy, such a typology should be accurate and provide a synthesised approach to flows. An example of the generic typology of flows that fulfils this criterion is proposed by Williams and Balàz (2009, 679-680). It is built on four major categories related to regional development: (1) trade, (2) labour migration, (3) capital and (4) knowledge. Similarly, in McKinsey Global Institute’s report on global flows the main flow categories analysed were goods, services, finance, people, and data (Manyika et al., 2014). In DHL Global Connectedness Index 2014 global connectedness of a country or macro-region was defined as their participation in international flows of trade, capital, information and people. These four pillars were further divided into following components (Ghemawat & Altman, 2014):
- Merchandise trade
- Services trade
- FDI stocks
- FDI flows
- Portfolio equity stocks
- Portfolio equity flows
- International Internet bandwidth
- Telephone call minutes
- Trade in printed publications
- Migrants (foreign born population)
- Tourists (departures and arrivals)
- International students
To summarise, it seems that the four most frequently included categories of flow analysis are capital, trade, information and people.